Qoob loo ntau lawm

Yuav ua li cas yog ib tug Tshuag, ua li cas nws txawv ntawm ib tug scion, yuav ua li cas kom loj hlob ib Tshuag

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Yuav kom txhim kho lub varietal thaj chaw ntawm cov nroj tsuag, nyob rau hauv botany lawv grafted. Qhov no yog qhov kev txuas ntawm qhov chaw ntawm cov nroj tsuag sib txawv thiab lawv cov kev sib tw gradual ntawm txhua lwm yam. Inoculations yog ib zaug, ob-thiab txawm plaub-zaj dab neeg, thiaj li yuav ua rau cov nroj tsuag resistant rau advers puag nrog high yields. Cov khoom siv thiab cov khoom seem yog qhov txawv ntawm qhov khoom siv. Nws yog lub Tshuag uas txiav txim siab cov khoom ntawm cov nroj tsuag, uas tau txais tom qab txhaj tshuaj tiv thaiv. Qhov tsab xov xwm no yuav pom ntau hom rootstocks, qhov sib txawv ntawm ntau hom ntoo, qhov loj

Dab tsi yog qhov Tshuag

Qhov no yog qhov tseem ceeb ntawm cov nroj tsuag. Lub Tshuag tsis pom ntau yam ntawm lub neej yav tom ntej nroj tsuag, tsis zoo li lub scion, tab sis nws muab kev noj haus zoo ntawm cov nroj tsuag thiab nws tsis kam mus rau ntau yam kev txhawj xeeb.

Lub Tshuag yog txhob txwm zus los yog tau los ntawm ib tsob ntoo qub, uas tau poob nws cov txiaj ntsim zoo, tab sis tseem muaj zog txaus los ua hauj lwm raws li rhizome rau cov chips tshiab.

Nws tseem ceeb heev! Kev txhaj tshuaj tiv thaiv yog luv luv nyob. Lawv muaj cov neeg tsis sib haum xeeb, thiab tsob ntoo hlob zus feem ntau muaj qhov muag tsis pom vim vim cov ceg ntoo loj heev. Feem ntau hnyav graft txiv hmab txiv ntoo ua rau ib qho chaw qoj ib ce. Ceev faj thaum muab cov nroj tsuag sib txawv.

Cov khoom muaj nqis dab tsi

Cov khoom tso faib raws li keeb kwm. Txhua tus tsiaj muaj nws qhov zoo thiab qhov tsis zoo ntawm lwm tus.

Clonal los yog vegetative

Los ntawm lub npe nws yog tseeb tias cov nroj tsuag ntawm cov nroj tsuag tau los ntawm vegetative propagation by cuttings ntawm niam txiv ntoo nrog tsawg yields, tab sis zoo lub cev.

Lub cuttings muaj ib puas feem sib npaug ntawm cov caj ces nrog cov thawj cov nroj tsuag, txais yuav los ntawm nws hom cag system, kev txwv ntawm kev loj hlob thiab kev hloov mus rau tej qhov chaw txawv lossis av.

Lub ntsiab kom zoo dua ntawm cov khoom lag luam clone yog cov khoom cog ntawm cov khoom cog nrog cov yam ntxwv tom qab cog qoob.

"Clones" raug muab faib ua ntsiag to, semi-ntses thiab nruab nrab. Lub hauv paus system ntawm vegetative seedlings yog zoo tsim, tab sis superficial, yog li tom qab txhaj tshuaj, xws li nroj tsuag yuav tsum tau kev txhawb nqa, uas incurs nqi ntxiv.

Kawm ntxiv txog dab tsi ntoo grafting yog, yuav ua li cas rau graft ntoo nyob rau hauv lub caij nplooj ntoos zeeg thiab caij nplooj ntoos hlav, yuav ua li cas graft txiv hmab txiv ntoo ntoo.

Ib tug zoo feature ntawm no feature yog tias xws li cov ntoo yuav cog nyob rau hauv cov cheeb tsam nrog ntiav av. Graft, cog on ib vegetative Tshuag, pib dais txiv hmab txiv ntoo nyob rau hauv peb lub xyoo, thiab qhov no yog ib qho zoo heev qhia.

Lub Tshuag Tshawb yog tsim rau cov neeg uas xav kom tau txais cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo uas muaj peev xwm tuaj yeem ua kom sai li sai tau thiab nyob rau hauv 7-10 xyoo mus rau hloov cov qauv ntawm lub vaj.

Koj puas paub? Qhov zoo tshaj plaws hais tawm "loj hlob nyob rau hauv ib tug pear pear" dab neeg tus neeg uas nws belongs li ib tug npau suav phem npau taws. Txawm li cas los xij, xws li cov tshuaj tiv thaiv yeej muaj nyob. Tsuas yog lawv tsis txheeb tus tiag tiag willow, tab sis mus rau ib tug verbolic pear nrog nyias nyiaj foliage. Qhov no yog ib qho Esxias ntau ntawm pears, uas tau txais kev txawj ntse txawm tias muaj ntau hom qes nruab nrab ntawm cov neeg hu ua Bera.

Noob

Cov paj puav no tsis tau lav tias yam khoom ntawm niam txiv cog. Rau xws li cultivation, noj cov noob ntawm tshwj xeeb tshaj yog resistant ntoo, xws li Antonovka Kua los yog rowan ntoo.

Raws li ib tug ntawm cov loj hlob siab nrog ib tug zoo-tsim tob paus system lawv tau. Lawv yuav tsis xav tau kev pab ntxiv, tab sis yuav tsum tau ceev faj thaum xaiv ib lub chaw rau cog.

Ib lub vaj cog ntawm noob tshooj yuav tsim ib qho kev tawm qib siab 40-50 xyoos tom qab cog.

Qhov tsis zoo ntawm no Tshuag yog nws cov luv luv fruiting (nyob rau ntawm 8-10 xyoo tom qab cog) thiab ib tug siab yuav qhov kev tuag ntawm cov nroj tsuag vim qhov ze tshwm sim ntawm av. Nyob rau hauv kev saib xyuas ntawm xws li cov ntoo yog ntau troublesome vim kev loj hlob thiab branched crown.

Noob rootstock tsim cov tswv uas nteg lub vaj teb rau ntau xyoo thiab nyob rau hauv rau yav pem suab kom hloov ntoo ntau yam tsis mus.

Scion compatibility nrog Tshuag

Nyob rau hauv txoj kev ntawm grafting yuav tsum tau ua los ntawm lub hauv paus ntsiab lus "zoo li zoo sib xws." Incompatibility ntawm cov tsiaj ua rau lub fact tias on tus neeg laus nroj tsuag thickening thiab deformation ntawm ntoo raug tsim, ua rau tuag ntawm tsob ntoo.

Hauv qhov no, qhov tshwm sim los ua tsuas yog nyob rau hauv peb lub xyoo los yog plaub ntawm kev loj hlob, thaum nplua chips pib tig mus rau hauv ib tsob ntoo full-fledged. Nyob rau hauv kev txiav txim kom tsis txhob poob ib tug loj npaum li cas ntawm lub sij hawm, koj yuav tsum ua ke lub graft thiab rootstock ntawm tib yam tsiaj, sim tshwj xeeb nrog ntau yam.

Nws tseem ceeb heev!Kom clonal cuttings zoo rooted, ua ntej nce nkojKhaws cia rau kaum xuab moos hauv qhov tshwj xeeb kev daws teeb meem. Nws tuaj yeem muas tau tom khw muag khoom. Cov tshuaj no yuav ua rau cov tawv nqaij cambial, thiab lawv yuav pib tsim cov hauv paus ntawm qhov chaw ntawm qhov kev txiav.

Kua Tshuag yog nyiam kom loj hlob los ntawm "Antonovka" thiab lub hauv paus plawv hav zoov. Pear prischepy zoo coj paus ntawm lub "Berah", "Bessemyanki" thiab qus pears. Plums grafted nyob rau hauv lub lem thiab hauv zos cov ntaub ntawv ntawm cov tsiaj qus cherry plum muab ib tug tshwj xeeb nplua nuj sau.

Cherry graft hlob fruitful thiab siv tau rau ntawm Tshuag ntawm Magaleb Cherry thiab "Vladimirka".

Kawm yuav ua li cas npaj thiab khaws cuttings rau grafting.

Thaum grafting, yuav coj los ntawm lub sij hawm ntawm ripening chips thiab clips. Nws yog ib qho tsis tsim nyog txais chips thiab pinch nrog sib txawv ripening cov nqe lus.

Thaum lub sij hawm tsim ntawm cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo xws li ib tug crown yuav tsis tau txais qhov yuav tsum tau ntim ntawm dej thiab muab kev pab cuam, thiab cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo yuav underdeveloped.

Cov txheej txheem hauv qab no qhia cov kev txhaj tshuaj sib xyaw.

Yuav ua li cas loj hlob noob Tshuag

Yog xav tau ib tug noj qab haus huv seedling, koj yuav tsum tau xaiv ib tug zoo noob uas haum rau Tshuag ntawm ntau yam.

Noob cog

Tsuas yog cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo mature yog tsim rau lub hom phiaj no. Yog hais tias koj ua hauj lwm nrog cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo pob zeb, lub noob khoom yuav txawv ntawm lawv tam sim ntawd. Nyob rau hauv tag nrho lwm cov mob, lub txiv hmab txiv ntoo yuav tsum tau muab rau ib tug sov so hnub ci sill rau 10-12 hnub rau kawg ripening.

Thaum lub sij hawm tag sij hawm, txiav cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo nrog ib tug ntse riam thiab tshem tawm cov tub ntxhais ua ke nrog cov noob. Cov kua txig tuaj yeem txua tau.

Tshaj tawm cov noob rau hauv ib txheej nyias nyias ntawm daim ntaub khov los yog daim ntawv khaus thiab muab lawv tso rau hauv ib chav tsev sov, qhov cua zoo. Hloov cov noob ua ntu zus kom nws dries evenly thiab tsis rot.

Tom qab ziab, cia lawv hauv cov ntaub ntaw los yog cov hnab yas kom txog thaum uas cog qoob. Khaws cov noob ntawm qhov kub ntawm + 8 ... +10 degrees thiab cov av noo tsis tshaj 60%.

Koj puas paub? Nws tsis yog yuav tsum tau to taub meej nyob rau hauv xyoo twg botanists thawj inoculated nroj tsuag. Nyob rau hauv cov ntawv nyeem, lub sij hawm "kev txhaj tshuaj tiv thaiv" nyob rau hauv lub ntsiab lus lub npe hu rau peb tshwm nyob rau hauvthawj nyob rau hauv 1814 hauv phau ntawv txhais lus encyclopedic ntawm Brockhaus publishing tsev.

Cog noob

Yuav kom "sawv" lub noob thiab ua rau lawv hloov hloov ua ntej germination, nqa tawm stratification. Qhov nruab nrab, lub sij hawm ntawm stratification rau pob zeb txiv hmab txiv ntoo kav 5 lub hlis (los ntawm Lub Kaum Ib Hlis), thiab rau noob noob - peb lub hlis (los ntawm Lub ib hlis ntuj).

Soak lub noob nyob rau hauv dej sov rau peb hnub, hloov cov dej txhua txhua 10-12 xuab moos. Sib tov ib feem ntawm cov noob nrog peb feem ntawm tshiab sawdust thiab ncuav qhov sib tov rau hauv ntim los yog thawv ib txheej tuab.

Tsau lawv ntawm kub ntawm +6 degrees mus txog rau thaum lawv pib hatch, mam li muab tso rau hauv lub tub yees thiab khw ntawm zero degrees mus txog thaum cog.

Npaj cov av rau caij nplooj ntoos hlav sowing nyob rau hauv lub caij nplooj ntoos zeeg. Ntxiv 8 kg ntawm manure, 50 g ntawm superphosphate, 30 kg ntawm peat thiab 20 g ntawm sodium chloride ib square Meter ntawm lub vaj teb cuab ntxhiab. Khawb qhov saum npoo ntawm lub cuab ntxhiab rau ib qhov tob ntawm 30 cm mus sib tov lub fertilizer nrog cov av.

Nyob rau hauv lub Plaub Hlis, cog cov noob cov khoom sib cais los ntawm sawdust rau hauv txawm grooves nrog ib-meter kab spacing thiab kaw nws mus rau tob. Mulch lub furrows nrog ib tug nyias txheej ntawm xoob peat.

Seedlings tu

Thaum xub thawj, lub seedlings yuav hatch heev thickly. Thaum lub seedlings pov tawm tawm plaub qhov tseeb tseeb, nyias nyias tawm, tshem lub unviable sprouts, mus rau ib tug ntom ntawm 1 sprout txhua 2 cm ntawm av. Qhov thib ob zaug, nyias tawm tom qab peb lub lis piam.

Pre-moisten cov av nyob rau hauv lub seedlings. Cia tawm ib sprout rau hauv txhua txhua 6 cm, Tom qab ntawd maj mam tamp lub rais topsoil thiab dej lub seedlings dua.

Nws tseem ceeb heev! Saib xyuas ntawm cia li grafted nroj tsuag los ntawm ntau noo noo. Slices yog susceptible rau pathogenic microflora thiab heev feem ntau rot los yog qhuav. Yog hais tias qhov kev txiav tawm tsis sib tshooj, rub lub cambium ntaub so nrog lub vaj teb.

Dej sprouts tsis tu ncua raws li qhov topsoil dries. Cov av yuav tsum tau loosened ib hnub tom qab txhua tus watering thiaj li hais tias lub noo noo tau los ntawm cov nroj tsuag yog khaws cia nyob rau hauv qis txheej ntawm cov av.

Loos cov av ze ntawm lub seedlings nrog ib tug hopper mus rau ib tug tob ntawm 8 cm, thiab txawm lub Upper txheej nrog ib tug rake. Sib dhos nrog xoob loos, vim tias cov nroj tsuag yooj yim dua tawm ntawm xoob av. Prophylactically kho seedlings tawm tsam powdery mildew thiab lwm yam fungal kab mob nrog fungicides.

Cov tshuaj fungicide muaj xws li "Hloov", "Thanos", "DNOC", "Fundazol", "Brunka", "Signum", "Merpan", "Cumulus", "Teldor", "Kuproksat".

Ib zaug ib hlis, fertilize lub sprouts nrog nitrogen thiab potash chiv, txhua txhua ob lub lim tiam ncuav lawv nrog ib tug qaug zog manure daws.

Ua ntej khawb tawm lub pob tsuag thaum xaus ntawm lub caij, tshem tawm cov seem uas tawm ntawm lawv thiab ncuav av kom zoo dua kev sib cais ntawm lub ntiaj teb coma.

Yuav ua li cas loj hlob clone Tshuag

Rau ib tug vegetative Tshuag, ntev stratification tsis yog yuav tsum tau, tab sis lub loj hlob txheej txheem nyob rau hauv no cov ntaub ntawv yog ntau nyuaj.

Kev muag khoom ntawm cuttings

Pib harvesting ntsuab cuttings nyob rau hauv lub twenties ntawm Lub rau hli ntuj. Nco ntsoov tias lub cuttings tsis muaj tsawg tshaj li 1 cm tuab, thiab qhov ntev tsis yog tsawg dua 50 cm. Nyias thiab luv luv chips yuav qhuav ua ntej lawv cov accretion nrog scion pib.

Qhov tsawg feem ntawm xws li tua yuav tsum woody, thiab sab saum toj - lub teeb ntsuab, nrog tsib los yog rau tseeb nplooj. Txiav cov tua nrog ib tug ntse mock los yog grafting riam ntawm ib lub 45 degree kaum sab xis 5 cm hauv qab thawj thawj bud. Ib qho kev muab faib ua ob cuttings. Ntxuav hauv qab nplooj ntawv, tawm tsuas yog ob sab saum toj.

Koj puas paub? Dua li ntawm qhov tseeb tias cov khoom siv thiab cov khoom muaj peev xwm pib txuas nrog cais cov ceg ntoo thiab tsuas yog cov paj ntoo txiv hmab txiv ntoo thaum lub pob txha, thaum lub hauv paus ntawm tus neeg laus cog kev loj hlob pib rau qhov zoo ntawm cov qoob loo. Yog li, tom qab grafting pear cuttings on irgu, pear txiv hmab txiv ntoo tau txais ib yam ntxwv lilac ntxoov ntxoo. Tib yam siv rau rowan rootstocks. Lawv pleev xim tus kab sau qoob rau hauv liab tones thiab txo qhov nws loj me ntsis.

Tsaws

Nroj lub cuttings nyob rau hauv cov av tseg rau leej niam cawv. Rau txhua lub txiav, siv ib qho chaw cais nrog ib qhov tob ntawm 2-3 cm Cov hlua yuav tsum 60 cm kom dav thiab cog cov pob zeb kom cov nplooj nyob ze tsis txhob kov.

Sai li sai tau tom qab cog, moisten cov av nrog basal dej, grumble nrog sifted peat.

Kev saib xyuas lub hauv paus

Ua kom ib ce tas li, sim av noo noo. Dej sprouts raws li lub topsoil dries. Nyob rau hauv txhua sprout ncuav 0.5 liv ntawm dej sov. Pib pub 20 hnub tom qab cog.

Lwm cov dej nrog nitrogen thiab potash chiv, ua nws txhua peb lub lim tiam. Loos cov av rau hnub tom qab txhua qhov kev ywg dej kom tawg ua cov kab ua rau nws thiab tiv thaiv kom tsis txhob ntev heev ntawm cov dej noo. Ntsuab pib pib ib txhij nrog loosening thaum tua tuaj txog kev loj hlob.

Qhov chaw txhaj tshuaj

Rau ib tug ob los yog peb lub xyoo Tshuag, ob txoj kev ntawm grafting yog haum: graft splitting thiab copulation. Rau grafting, txiav lub Tshuag nrog ib tug ntse riam mus rau ib qhov siab ntawm 15 cm los ntawm cov av, sib sau ib tug ncaj txiav.

Split nws mus rau ib tug tob ntawm 3-4 cm raws nraim nyob rau hauv nruab nrab. Xees ob sab ntawm qis ntug ntawm graft mus rau ib qhov siab ntawm 4-5 cm rau ib tug ca kawg. Ntxig lub graft mus rau qhov sib txawv nyob rau hauv lub Tshuag, tsis nqa 0.5 cm mus rau hauv qab ntawm splitting.

Txhim kho qhov khoom siv nrog ib daim ntaub nplaum, ntaub qhwv nrog daim kab xev thiab npog qhov kev txiav rau lub Tshuag nrog lub vaj teb.

Nws tseem ceeb heev! Lub caij nplooj ntoos pov tseg lig yuav tsis muab cov khoom noj kom txaus rau qhov graft nrog thaum ntxov ripeness. Sim ua ke nrog cov nroj tsuag nrog tib yam kev lom neeg muaj zog.

Tshaj tawm cov nroj tsuag nrog rau kev sib txuam, ua rau qhov chaw 20 degree tsis pub tsawg tshaj 4 cm ntawm daim tawv nyias thiab ntse rab riam nrog rab riam. Txhim kho qhov ua cov ntaub so ntswg thiab daim kab xev.

Rau ib tug neeg laus Tshuag, ob qho tib si ntawm cov saum toj no txoj kev tsim. Thaum hlob tuaj ntawm ib tsob ntoo laus, ob los yog peb lub scales yuav muab tso rau hauv ib qho khoob khoob khuab ntawm lub Tshuag, yog hais tias qhov txiav thiab qhov khoob raug ua rau ceg ntoo skeletal.

Thaum txiav rau ib qho kev loj hlob ceg, grafting yog nqa tawm nyob rau hauv tib txoj kev raws li nyob rau hauv ib tug ob-xyoos Tshuag.

Cov khoom txawv txawv

Cov nram qab no xaiv rau rootstocks yuav suav hais tias raws li sim, txij li thaum interspecific txhaj tshuaj muab qhov zoo tshaj plaws tawm los.

Rowan

Qhov cim Frost tsis kam ntawm roob tshauv yuav tiv thaiv cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo graft los ntawm khov. Qhov tsis zoo ntawm no txhaj tshuaj tiv thaiv yog hais tias nyob rau hauv peb lub xyoo ntawm fruiting txiv hmab txiv ntoo ntawm lub txiv hmab txiv ntoo graft pib mus rau shrink thiab thaum kawg degenerate ib ncig ntawm lub xya xyoo.

Nrog kev pab ntawm graft on roob tshauv, koj muaj peev xwm ntev lub neej ntawm ib tug txiv hmab txiv ntoo ntoo puas los ntawm nas los yog Frost. Kua thiab quince hlob zoo tshaj plaws nrog rowan.

Hawthorn

Ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm cov khoom nyob rau sab qaum teb. Tseem ceeb heev nce Frost tsis kam ntawm scion thiab qeeb qeeb cuam tshuam qhov loj ntawm cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo. Qhov zoo tshaj plaws hawthorn pear, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog lub ntau yam "Kruger", "Bera" thiab "Goverla".

Nyob rau hauv lub thib peb los yog thib plaub xyoo tom qab pib ntawm fruiting, lub txiv hmab txiv ntoo ntawm graft pib tig liab, tab sis qhov no tsis cuam tshuam rau saj thiab tawm los.

Koj puas paub? Thawj cultivated Kua orchards tshwm nyob rau hauv ib ncig ntawm lub teb chaws Slavic nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua XI. Cov no yog cov vaj tse hauv cov vajntxwv Kievan, qhov twg, nyob rau hauv Yaroslav lub ntsej muag, lawv pib yug tshiab kua ntau hom siv cov txheej txheem prischep. Lub hauv paus rau botanical ua hauj lwm nyob rau ntawm lub sij hawm ntawd tsuas yog plaub hom ntawm qus kua qaub ntoo: hav zoov, Suav, livolistnaya thiab Berry.

Irga

Nws muab ib lub hauv paus zoo heev rau kev loj hlob ntses loj hlob tsob ntoo. Koj yuav tsum tau saib xyuas qhov muag ntawm lub hauv siab - txiav tawm ntxiv tua thiab muab kev txhawb zog nyob rau hauv cov ceg ntoo thiaj li hais tias qhov loj qia ntawm lub rootstock yuav tsis raug mob los ntawm hnyav graft ceg thiab txiv hmab txiv ntoo.

Lub Tshuag yog ib txoj kev yooj yim rau propagate tus nroj tsuag, muab ib bountiful high-quality sau. Tshuag tsis cuam tshuam qhov tsim tau ntawm scion, nws muaj nuj nqi yog muab cov chips nrog cov as-ham, noo noo thiab ua rau nws tsis kam ua rau te lossis drought.

Cov Tshuag yuav ua tau cov ntoo thiab noob. Lub hau kev txiav luam yeeb tso cai rau koj kom txuag tau tag nrho cov khoom tsim nyog ntawm leej niam cov nroj tsuag thiab sau thawj cov qoob loo li ntawm peb mus rau plaub lub xyoos tom qab kev txhaj tshuaj, thiab cov noob kom tau cov nroj tsuag siab ntev ntev.

Siv cov khoom noj khoom haus zoo rau cov tub ntxhais hluas tau cog lus tias yuav muaj tus ciaj sia zoo npaum li cas ntawm tus txheeb ze thiab muab tus nplua nuj tawm ntawm cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo uas koj xav tau.

Cov tswv yim los ntawm cov neeg siv network

Peb cov grandfathers, loj hlob lub vaj on noob Tshuag. Rau cov hom phiaj no, nws yog ib qho zoo uas yuav siv cov kev cai ib nrab los yog, piv txwv li, rau Apple-Antonovka, rau pear-Lemon. Los ntawm seedlings, thaum khawb, feem ntau tsim tau raug xaiv, tsis muaj pos, tsis muaj cov cim qhia ntawm tus kab mob, nrog ib tug ntau branched paus. Nyob rau hauv ib qho ntawm cov hav zoov ntawm Kharkov, ib lub vaj ua ntej pre-revolutionary yog tseem tab tom loj hlob, ntawm lub noob ntoo. Kuv tus kheej ntsuam xyuas 10-15 xyoo dhau los. Hom phiaj, lub noob yuav tsum tau sown sai sai nyob rau hauv mus tas li qhov chaw, 5-10 txhua tus nyob rau hauv ib lub zoo, ces xaiv qhov zoo tshaj plaws ntawm lawv thiab them lawv nyob rau hauv qhov chaw yam tsis muaj transplanting.
Native American
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