Pear

Pear "kev kawm": cov yeeb yam, qhov zoo thiab qhov tsis zoo

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Yog tias koj tab tom nrhiav txiv ntoo hauv koj lub vaj teb, peb xav kom koj xav tias qhov kev xaiv cog qoob loo pears "Kev kawm". Ib cov lus piav qhia ntawm ntau yam thiab tej yam kev mob rau nws cov cultivation yuav pom nyob rau hauv peb tsab xov xwm. Tam sim no, peb nco ntsoov hais tias ib qho ntawm qhov tseem ceeb ntawm cov tsob ntoo pear yog nws lub caij ntuj no hardiness thiab kev loj hlob nyob rau sab qaum teb thiab lwm thaj chaw ntawm "risky teb".

Hauv keeb kwm

Nyob rau ntawm caj ces keeb kwm ntawm pear "Academic" hnub no tsis muaj ntaub ntawv. Nws yog paub tias nws tau muab bred los ntawm cov neeg ua haujlwm ntawm Moscow Agricultural Academy. KA Timiryazeva - S. Chizhov, S. Potapov, N. Agafonov thiab A. Isachkin. Tsob ntoo tau muab rau ntau yam kev xeem hauv lub xeev tsis ntev dhau los - 1997 Cov lus pom zoo rau ntau yam uas tau xeem nyob hauv Central Region.

Ntsuam xyuas dej ntau tshaj plaws ntawm pears: "Tenderness", "Petrovskaya", "In Memory of Zhegalov", "Otradnenskaya", "Avgustovskaya Dew", "Children", "Rogneda", "Elena", "Fairytale", "Nika" Northerner. "

Tsob ntoo piav qhia

Kev pom zoo nrog tus qhab nia "Pearl" peb yuav pib nrog cov lus piav qhia ntawm cov ntoo. Pear ntoo ntawm no ntau yam loj hlob mus rau medium loj. Nws lub koob meej yog cov xeeb ceem thiab kev ceev. Raws li daim ntawv - dav pyramidal.

Txiv Hmab Txiv Ntoo Txheej

Txiv hmab txiv ntoo ua ib daim ntawv zoo nkauj shrubkoobrazhevy. Lawv yog cov xim zoo nkauj - nrog daj tawv thiab liab sab. On nruab nrab, ib pear ncav ib tug loj ntawm 130-150 g Cov ntaub ntawv tuav tau nce mus txog 250 g.

Txiv hmab txiv ntoo yog txuas rau medium tuab stems.

Lawv cov nqaij yog dawb, ntom nyob rau hauv tus qauv, muaj kua. Cov tshuaj tsw qab tsis yog qhia tau ntau heev. Lub saj yog qab zib thiab me ntsis qaub.

Koj puas paub? Pears yog cov tseem ceeb rau tib neeg lub cev. Ib cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo muaj 20% fiber ntau hauv txhua hnub rau tib neeg, 10% ascorbic acid, 6% potassium. Nws kuj muaj ntau hom tshuaj muaj feem xyuam rau ntuj antiseptics thiab tshuaj tiv thaiv mob antifungal.

Cov Teeb Kom Ua Raws Cai

Qhov no ntau yam zoo tshaj plaws nyob rau hauv sab qab teb, sab qab teb-sab hnub poob los yog sab hnub poob sab hnub poob. Qhov chaw nyob qhov twg tsob ntoo pear yuav loj hlob, nws yog qhov zoo dua rau xaiv lub hnub, txawm li cas los nws yuav tsum tsis txhob yuav sultry. Qhov tseeb yog tias pear tsis nyiam kom loj hlob nrog muaj zog evaporation ntawm noo noo.

Nrog lub teeb meem tsis ncaj ncees, cov nroj tsuag yuav tsim cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo me me. Thiab cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo, nyob rau hauv lem, yuav dua sugary thiab, raws li, tsis yog li six.

Nyeem txog cov txiaj ntsig thiab kev raug mob ntawm kev noj mov pears.

Cov av uas yuav tsum tau

Cov pear yuav loj hlob zoo nyob rau xoob xoob. Cov av yuav tsum hla dej thiab oxygen zoo. Thaum cog, nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb uas yuav tsum tau nqa lub qhov dej nrog kua zoo, txij li thaum cov nroj tsuag yuav tsis ciaj sia lub stagnation ntawm noo noo. Nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb yuav tsum tau them sai sai rau qhov tshwm sim hauv av - lawv yuav tsum nyob ze tsis pub dhau 2 m mus rau saum npoo ntawm lub ntiaj teb.

Qhov zoo tshaj plaws thaj av rau cog pears "Akademicheskaya" yog:

  • sod;
  • nrab sod;
  • me ntsis sod;
  • Sandy loam
  • teeb loamy.

Raws li cov tshuaj tiv thaiv acid, cov av yuav tsum muaj ib lub qis pH - hauv qab no 6. Nws yog ib qho tsim nyog ntxiv rau txiv qaub rau nws ua ntej cog lub seedling tsuas yog nyob rau hauv tsawg zaus.

Nws tseem ceeb heev! Thaum cog yuav tsum them sai sai rau lub fact tias hauv paus caj dab ntawm seedling twb nyob saum toj no hauv av, kwv yees nyob rau theem ntawm 3-5 cm.

Pollination

Qhov ntau yam yog nws rau nws tus kheej fertility. Txawm li ntawd los, kom nce lub tawm los ntawm pears "Akademicheskaya" nws yog ib qhov tsim nyog yuav tau cog ntoo ntawm lwm yam ntau yam uas yuav ua pollinators nyob rau hauv ze sib thooj. Lada, Otradnenskaya, Severinka, Chizhovskaya yog qhov zoo tshaj plaws haum rau lub hom phiaj no.

Fruiting

Pear "Kev kawm" yog npe raws li ib tsob ntoo nrog hom mixed fruiting. Txiv hmab txiv ntoo feem ntau yog khi rau txhua hom ntoo. Lub pear nkag fructification nyob rau hauv peb-plaub lub xyoos tom qab ib sapling yog cog.

Gestation lub sijhawm

Lub sij hawm ntawm ripening pear "Academic" poob rau thawj xyoo caum ntawm lub Cuaj Hli. Txawm tias muaj qhov loj loj, cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo yog khov kho nrog cov ceg thiab tsis crumble.

Tawm

Cov ntoo yog cov cim ntawm qhov nruab nrab tawm los. Feem ntau nws yog 50 kg ntawm ib tsob ntoo.

Kev thauj khoom thiab kev cia khoom

Qhov kev tsim tau ntawm cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo ntawm Akademichesky ntau yam yog zoo. Zoo li txhua lub caij nplooj zeeg pears, cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo yog muab rau ib ntev lub sij hawm - txog li ob los yog peb lub lis piam nyob rau hauv lub tub yees thiab kom txog thaum Lub Kaum Ib Hlis Ntuj nyob rau hauv lub cellar. Kev tu ncua ntev yuav ua tiav los ntawm kev xaiv cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo nyob rau theem ntawm thawj zaug ripening, tswj qhov ncaj ncees ntawm lub qia, saib cov kub uas yuav tsum tau - los ntawm 0 ° C mus rau 4 ° C thiab cua av noo nyob rau theem 85-90%.

Nws tseem ceeb heev! Planting pear ntoo yuav tsum tau ua nyob rau hauv thaum ntxov caij nplooj ntoos hlav. Nrog ib tug lig cog, nws muaj peev xwm siv paus tsis zoo los yog qhia zuj zus yields. Nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb tshwj xeeb kom ua raws li kev pom zoo rau cov caij landing. - ua ntej ob lub raum swell - Nyob rau hauv lub teb ntawm nruab nrab thiab sab qaum teb cheeb tsam ntawm teb.

Kab Mob thiab Kab Tsuag Kab Tsuag

Thaum yug me nyuam ntau yam, lub breeders ua kom paub tseeb tias nws yog tsiag ntawv los ntawm tsis kam mus scab, yog li ntawd cov nroj tsuag tsis tau mob nyob rau hauv tag nrho. Nrog ntev ntev rainy huab cua yuav poob txiv hmab txiv ntoo rot.

Ntawm pests yog tshwj xeeb tshaj yog txaus ntshai nas. Ib tsob ntoo yuav tsum raug tiv thaiv los ntawm ib tug neeg - muab qhwv nws lub cev nrog ib tus tshwj xeeb net.

Frost tsis kam

Cov ntoo ntawm cov hoob kawm no yog qhov zoo los ntawm lub caij ntuj no hardiness - nws qib yog cim "saum toj nruab nrab". Qhov no qhia tau hais tias pear loj hlob nyob rau hauv cheeb tsam nrog ib tug huab cua hnyav.

Yuav kom nce lub caij ntuj no tsis kam ntawm cov av nyob ib ncig ntawm lub pob zeb ntawm tsob ntoo pear, nws yog ib qhov tsim nyog rau mulch, thiab tseem mus qhwv lub qia nrog ib tug tshwj xeeb cov khoom uas tso cai rau huab cua thiab noo noo kom dhau los. Raws li mulch feem ntau yog siv humus. Nws yog pw rau hauv ib lub txheej ntawm 5 cm.

Koj puas paub? Nyob rau hauv Suav teb, pear cultivated txij li thaum 1134 BC. er Tau ntev mus, Suav suav tias nws yog lub cim ntawm kev tsis txawj tuag. Txhaum nws, los sis txawm cia li pom ib lub cev pob txha tawg, rau lawv txhais hais tias qhov phem npog.

Siv txiv hmab txiv ntoo

Txiv hmab txiv ntoo ntau hom "Kev Kawm Ntawv" muaj lub hom phiaj thoob ntiaj teb. Lawv muaj peev xwm yuav consumed tshiab, ua compote ntawm lawv, ua jam thiab jam, qhuav.

Nrhiav kom paub seb dab tsi yog qhov uas yuav ua rau pears rau lub caij ntuj no.

Muaj zog thiab qaug zog

Zoo li ntau yam, pear "Academic" muaj ntau qhov zoo thiab qhov tsis zoo. Nyob ntawd Nws muaj ntau yam zoo tshaj qhov tsis zoo Koj tuaj yeem tshawb xyuas nws los ntawm kev txheeb xyuas cov npe hauv qab no.

Tshaj tawm

Ntawm qhov zoo tshaj peb nco txog cov yeeb yam nram qab no:

  • tsis kam mus rau kev puas tsuaj;
  • kev nthuav dav ntawm cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo;
  • zoo saj;
  • txiv hmab txiv ntoo ntau tshaj qhov nruab nrab;
  • precocity.

Ntseeg

Ntawm cov tsis zoo yam ntxwv ntawm ntau yam, kab tias peb tuaj yeem hais txog ob nqe lus xwb:

  • crown tsim dhau heev tuab;
  • acute teb rau stagnant noo noo, dej nyab.

Koj puas paub? Ua ntej luam yeeb nkag tau rau cov teb chaws Europe, cov neeg European tau haus pear nplooj.

Pear "Kev kawm" - Qhov no yog ib qho kev xaiv zoo rau txhua lub vaj. Nws tsis ua tshwj xeeb cov kev cai rau cov kab txawv ntawm cov av, muaj lub caij ntuj no zoo hardiness, yog resistant rau scab kev puas tsuaj. Thaum cog rau hauv thaj chaw zoo, qhov kev siv ntawm cov dej yuav tsum tau muaj thiab dej ntws, fertilizing thiab pruning ntawm cov ntoo, tsob ntoo pear yuav ua rau cov cua, zoo nkauj thiab noj qab nyob zoo txiv hmab txiv ntoo uas zoo thauj thiab khaws cia.

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