Seedling

Yam dab tsi xav tau los mus ua kom pom cov yub: qhov kev xaiv xaiv thiab cov khoom siv cov khoom siv

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Feem ntau, thaum loj hlob seedlings, gardeners tsis siv tej yam teeb pom kev, xav tias lawv yuav khoom raws li ib tug pov tseg ntawm cov nyiaj. Txawm li cas los, yog tias koj muaj ntau lub thawv nrog seedlings thiab txhua tus neeg tsis muaj txaus qhov chaw nyob rau hauv lub qhov rais sill, ces cov lus nug ntawm khoom neeg tsim teeb pom kev ua tiav ntau yam tseem ceeb. Cov nroj tsuag zus nyob hauv qhov ntxoov ntxoo muaj ntau me thiab qaug zog tshaj cov yub uas tau txais ib qho txaus txaus ntawm lub teeb, yog li ntawd, muab qhov tseeb no, nws ua rau kev txiav txim siab xav txog kev yuav khoom tsim nyog. Nrog rau kev tso kawm ntawv thiab xaiv cov cuab yeej fais fab, tsis muaj qhov kub nyhiab yuav tsum tsis txhob ntshai.

Yog nws ua tau kom pom cov noob seed nrog ib lub teeb txawb

Qhov zoo tshaj plaws xaiv hnub no teeb pom kev yog nquag teeb lub teeb, tab sis nws yog qhov tseeb tsis tsim nyog rau qhov tseem ceeb ntawm seedlings. Firstly, txawm tias tus tseem haib thiab kim tshaj plaws ntawm qhov kev ntaus ntawv yuav tsis tso cai rau koj kom tau txais qhov tsim nyog npaum li cas ntawm qhov tseem ceeb xws li xiav thiab liab lub teeb vim yog lub teeb lim dej tsawg, thiab ob qho tib si, tsis muaj teeb meem dab tsi tshaj qhov chaw seedlings koj tso teeb, qhov kev pheej hmoo ntawm kev hlawv tseem heev. Tias yog vim li cas nws yog tsim nyog xaiv lwm yam kev xaiv rau lub koom haum ntawm teeb pom kev zoo.

Koj puas paub? Nyob hauv Asmeskas lub nroog Livermore (Kalifonias) hauv ib qho ntawm cov chaw muaj hluav taws kub muaj lub qhov muag teeb xya xyoo, uas tau tshwm sim tas li txij thaum xyoo 1901. Nws tau muab teev rau hauv phau Guinness Book of Records raws li qhov feem ntau ruaj khov.

Hom roj teeb

Cov teeb meem loj ntawm lub khw, cov luminescent thiab LED versions yog cov neeg tshwj xeeb tshaj plaws, tab sis yuav kom nkag siab tias qhov lawv zoo li cas, nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb uas yuav tsum kawm txog lwm cov teeb txawb: sodium, mercury, hlau hiam.

Fluorescent

Qhov zoo ntawm lub teeb yog roj paug tawm qhov ciqhov twg ib qho hluav taws xob paug nyob hauv mercury vapor muab ultraviolet ci ntsa iab. Tom qab, thaum siv tus neeg muag khoom tshwj xeeb, nws hloov mus rau hauv pom lub teeb pom kev zoo. Fluorescent yaj yog cov cim los ntawm ntau dua luminous ua tau zoo tshaj lub niaj zaus cov roj teeb uas niaj hnub nrog tib lub hwj chim indices. Nrog kev tshawb fawb ntau dua txhua yam cov yam ntxwv ntawm cov roj fluorescent, peb tau cov ntaub ntawv hauv qab no:

  1. Ua tau zoo - ntau tshaj 20-22%.
  2. Lub neej - thaum muab rau 2000 zaug, txog 5 xyoos.
  3. Lub teeb ci - 50-80 lm / W
  4. Zog noj - 15-65 W / h.
  5. Xim kub - 2700-7700 ° K (nyob ntawm ntau yam).

Obviously, fluorescent teeb muaj ib pawg zoo siabVim hais tias lawv tsis tsuas yog tso tawm ntau lub teeb, tab sis kuj emit ntau ntxoov, thaum muab diffused teeb pom kev zoo. Tsis tas li ntawd xwb, zoo li cov qauv qij qhov muag, xws li hom teeb pom kev zoo tuaj yeem lav tias ntev dua kev ua haujlwm, yog tias koj tsis siv lawv nyob rau hauv qhov chaw pej xeem (muaj kev txwv ntawm cov lej tawm). Teeb pom nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv no yuav tsum nyob ze li qhov ua tau rau ntuj. Raws li rau tsis raug cov roj fluorescent, ces lawv suav cov hauv qab no:

  • tshuaj lom neeg vim muaj mercury cov ntsiab lus (ntawm 2.3 rau 1 g);
  • unevenness thiab linearity ntawm cov xim spectrum, uas yog qee zaum pom tau los ntawm tib neeg tsis pom kev;
  • kev hloov hauv cov xim spectrum vim lub degradation ntawm phosphor (vim li ntawd, lub teeb zis txo thiab cov nqi txo), tab sis qhov no yuav siv sij hawm;
  • nrog ib lub me me ntawm lub raj capacitor nws yuav flicker nrog ob zaug qhov zaus ntawm lub hwj chim khoom;
  • nyob ntawm ib qho pib ntaus ntawv, uas yog nkag los nrog tog twg los ntawm kev sib tw tsis tshua muaj siab los yog siv hluav taws xob kim heev.

Koj puas paub? Cov pog koob yawg koob ntawm lub teeb uas niaj hnub siv tau ua rau cov roj ntu ntawm cov roj teeb, uas tshwm sim hauv xyoo 1856. Thawj tus neeg uas tau tswj hwm lub zog ntawm cov roj hauv qee lub sijhawm tam sim no, yog tus kws tshawb fawb nto mikhail Lomonosov.

Sodium

Nyob rau hauv xws li hom teeb pom kev, lub teeb ci yog sodium khub niam txivmuaj roj tawm. Vim li no, nyob rau hauv lawv cov spectrum ntawm lub teeb resonant tawg ntawm ci xim txiv kab ntxwv prevails. Ntawm chav kawm, xim zoo nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv no tsis tau hu ua zoo meej, txij li lub tawg nws tus kheej yog characterized los ntawm monochrome. Raws li tus nqi ntawm qhov vertical ib nrab siab, tag nrho cov teeb pom kev zoo no tau muab faib ua cov roj teeb uas muaj qis thiab siab, thiab cov cwj pwm ntawm cov luminaires yog hais txog cov nram qab no:

  1. Kev ua haujlwm - qhov siab tshaj 30% (rau kev kub ceev).
  2. Kev pab cuam lub neej - txog 16-28 txhiab teev.
  3. Lub teeb zis yog 150 lumens / watt (nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv ntawm kev kub siab) thiab 200 lumen / watts (rau cov uas tsis muaj roj teeb).
  4. Kev noj fais fab - 70-60 W / h.
  5. Cov xim kub yog 2000-2500 ° K.

Cov nta ntawm cov xim tha xim thiab cov teeb meem loj nrog ob npaug ntawm cov khoom noj khoom haus tso cai siv cov roj teeb nyob rau hauv txoj kev teeb pom kev zoo, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog cov hniav thiab cov vaj tse.

Cov txiaj ntsig Qhov kev xaiv no muaj raws li hauv qab no:

  • ua haujlwm ntev;
  • tseem muaj lub teeb siab thaum lub sijhawm tag nrho ntawm kev lag luam (qis dua 130 lm / W tuaj yeem tau txais kev pom zoo ntawm qhov kev pab cuam ntawm lub teeb);
  • xoob hluav taws xob rau tib neeg lub qhov muag;
  • tau siv nyob rau hauv lub cultivation ntawm seedlings nyob rau hauv lub sij hawm tom ntej los yog rau lwm hom phiaj hom phiaj.

Raws li rau tsis raug sodium ntau yam, nws yog:

  • tsim teeb meem vim yog muaj cov tshuaj sodium vapor;
  • txom nyem xim zoo;
  • siab ua kom nws ncav tsis tau voltage nyob hauv lub qhov tseem ceeb (rau kev pab ntev, qhov kev hloov hluav taws xob yuav tsum tsis pub ntau tshaj 5-10%);
  • qhov xav tau cov cuab yeej siv ntxiv (yuav tsum tau muaj kev tswj fais fab, xaiv raws li cov yam ntxwv ntawm ib qho teeb);
  • qhov xav tau yooj yim (5-10 feeb) uantej rov tuaj;
  • tsis tshua muaj kev ruaj ntseg vim muaj cov tshuaj sodium vapor hauv lub teeb txawb.

Tej zaum kev rau cov hom phiaj ntawm lub tsev yuav tsim nyog (piv txwv li, rau txoj kev teeb pom kev), tiam sis thaum loj hlob tuaj yeem ua rau pom zoo rau lwm cov kev xaiv, uas muaj kev nyab xeeb ntau dua kev siv thiab muaj xim zoo nkauj.

Nws tseem ceeb heev! Monochrome hluav taws xob los ntawm cov roj teeb (high-viscosity) (nyob rau hauv lub txiv kab ntxwv-xim spectrum) yuav tsim nyog rau kev ua kom cov txheej txheem ntawm cov kab kev txhim kho, yog li lawv muaj peev xwm ntsia tau rau hauv greenhouses.

Mercury

Tshaj tawm ntawm cov hom no yog lwm lub teeb ci zoo, qhov muag hluav taws xob uas tshwm sim los ntawm kev tawm hauv mercury vapor. Raws li cov pa roj hauv lub teeb, RL yog tso tawm tsawg, siab thiab ultrahigh siab. Raws li, qhov siab ntawm mercury vapor yog muab faib rau li 100 Pa, txog 100 kPa thiab 1 MPa los yog ntau dua.

Yam ntxwv ntawm mercury yaj yog qhia hauv cov cim nram no:

  1. Kev Ua Tau - qhov siab tshaj 10-12%.
  2. Kev pab cuam lub neej - txog 10-15 teev.
  3. Lub teeb ci - 45-60 lumen / watt.
  4. Kev noj fais fab - 50-400 W / h.
  5. Xim kub - mus txog 3800 ° K.

Cov hom teeb pom kev zoo no yog kev lag luam, thiab feem ntau siv rau kev teeb pom kev hauv lub nroog, cov chaw ua haujlwm thiab kev cob qhia, uas tsis muaj qhov xav tau ntawm cov xim zoo nkauj.

Virtues roj tawm mercury teeb nyob hauv qab no:

  • lawv cog lus;
  • muaj qhov kev ua haujlwm siab zoo heev;
  • 5-7 zaug ntau dua qis tshaj qhov qub qij incandescent qij;
  • thaum siv kom raug, muab kom txog li 15,000 xuab moo ntawm kev lag luam ruaj khov;
  • tsawg dua qhov qub txaj hluav taws kub;
  • muab cov xim sib txawv;
  • tuaj yeem ua haujlwm nyob rau hauv tej yam mob qis thiab siab (ntawm +50 rau -40 ° C).

Disadvantages mercury lub teeb pom kev zoo yog tsis pom tsawg, lawv muaj xws li:

  • tsawg xim kub (tsis pub tshaj 3800 ° K);
  • ntev ignition (7-10 feeb);
  • siab raug rau kev hloov hauv lub network;
  • kuj tsis tshua muaj xim sib luag;
  • lub caij ntev lub teeb cua txias;
  • txo ntawm cov khoom xim, pib los ntawm ob feem ntawm lub sijhawm ua haujlwm;
  • tsawg theem ntawm kev phooj ywg zoo vim muaj mercury nyob hauv tus qauv.

Xws li cov roj teeb, cov teeb meem muaj mercury muaj haum rau cov hom phiaj nyob hauv tsev, tab sis rau kev ua tiav cov noob ntoo hauv cov theem pib ntawm lawv cov peev xwm yuav tsis txaus.

Tau ntsib nrog lub peculiarities ntawm loj hlob seedlings ntawm cucumbers, eggplants, txiv lws suav, peppers, beets, dos, zucchini, strawberries, paj.

Hlau hle

Hom kab no, raws li tau piav saum toj no, sawv cev rau pawg muaj pa taws ua kom muaj pa taws kub. Txawm li cas los xij, tsis zoo li lawv, cov hlau phom muab luminescence vim cov kev qhia txog tshwj xeeb additives mus rau hauv qhov kub hnyiab - qee cov khoom xyaw hlau. Cov yam ntxwv ntawm cov khoom siv hlau hiam muaj qhia hauv qab no:

  1. Kev Ua Tau - qhov siab tshaj 16-28%.
  2. Kev pab cuam lub neej - txog li 6-10 teev.
  3. Lub teeb tau zoo - 80-170 lumen / watt.
  4. Kev siv fais fab - 70-400 W / h.
  5. Xim kub - los ntawm 2500 ° K (xim daj) rau 20 000 ° K (xiav teeb).

Cov khoom siv hle hiab yog siv rau sab nraum zoov teeb vaj tse teeb pom kev zoo thiab rau kev zoo nkauj ci ntsa iab, txawm tias lawv siv cov vaj tse thiab cov pej xeem thiab kev sib tw ua yeeb yam tsis raug cais tawm. Lawv yuav yog ib qho zoo heev rau qhov teeb meem ntawm qhov teeb pom kev txhua qhov twg koj xav tau kev nthuav dav kom ci ntsa iab thiab spectral li ze tau rau hnub ci.

Cov txiaj ntsig IPM muaj raws li hauv qab no:

  • siab tso zis (txog 170 lumen / watt);
  • kev ua haujlwm zoo;
  • tseem muaj hwj chim loj (li ntawm 3500 watts);
  • ruaj khov txawm hais tias kub npaum cas;
  • qhov siab tshaj plaws ntawm lub teeb rau lub hnub, thiaj li hais tias hluav taws xob feem ntau yog pom los ntawm tib neeg qhov muag;
  • qhov loj ntawm lub teeb;
  • ntev siv.
Yuav cons hlau hle teeb pom kev muaj xws li:

  • ntau dua tus nqi;
  • kev hloov hauv chromaticity ntawm cov hluav taws xob vim fais fab tuag nyob rau hauv daim phiaj fais fab;
  • pib ntev;
  • qhov yuav tsum tau txhim khu kev ruaj ntseg teeb nyob rau hauv lub teeb (high voltage yuav ua rau tawg ntawm lub caij).

Koj puas paub? Thomas Edison lub thev nchuav ua yog tsim los ntawm cov paib xyoob ntoo.

LED teeb

Muaj coob tus neeg nyob hauv lub caij ntuj sov xav txog qhov LED version ntawm luminaires los ua kom pom kev tov rau qhov xav tau ntxiv teeb pom kev ntawm seedlings. Qhov khoom siv stand-alone no muaj ntau yam zoo, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog nyob rau hauv kev sib piv nrog ntau lwm yam teeb pom kev zoo. Yam tsawg kawg nkaus, nws siv hluav taws xob tsawg dua, vim tias cov tshuab siv raws li txoj cai sib txawv ntawm hluav taws xob. Tsis tas li ntawd, lub teeb uas ntsiag kom ze li sai tau rau ntuj hnub ci, uas muaj ib qho txiaj ntsig ntawm cov nroj tsuag. Cov yam ntxwv ntawm cov niaj hnub LED teeb yog sawv cev los ntawm cov nqi hauv qab no:

  1. Ua tau zoo - ntau tshaj 99%.
  2. Kev pabcuam lub neej - txog li 100,000 teev;
  3. Lub teeb zoo - 10-200 lumen / watt;
  4. Zog noj - 1 W / teev (ib diode).
  5. Cov xim kub yog 2700-6500 ° K.

Ntau yam qauv tsim ntawm LED teeb pom kev cia koj cia siv kiag li hauv txhua qhov chaw: piv txwv, tapes yog yooj yim mus txuas rau rooj tog zaum, thiab cov roj teeb tau screwed rau hauv cov kab nrib ordinary. Ntawm lub ntsiab zoo faib:

  • tsis muaj hluav taws xob tsawg (tsuas yog 10% ntawm kev noj haus ntawm cov qij qhov muag qis);
  • kev pabcuam ntev lub neej tsis muaj kev txo qis tsawg ntawm kev sib tsoo hluav taws xob;
  • siab tsis kam rau cov neeg ua haujlwm kev ntxhov siab;
  • kev phooj ywg ib puag ncig (LEDs tsis xav tau cov khoom tsim txom);
  • qhov tseem ceeb ntawm kev tswj cov kev siv ntawm lub ci;
  • tsawg voltage hauv kev ua hauj lwm;
  • yoo ua kom sov siab txog qhov siv ntau lub teeb;
  • tsis muaj cua sov loj ntawm rooj plaub.

Tseem ceeb tsis raug LEDs tsis yog, txawm li cas los xij, nws tsim nyog teev cov kev ntsuas kom siab (tsis tuaj yeem siv hauv da dej thiab saunas), tsis muaj ntaub ntawv qhia txog tus yam ntxwv ntawm lub ntim, tab sis qhov no yog qhov feem ntau ntawm kev tsis ncaj ncees ntawm tuam ntxhab.

Nyeem kuj txog kev npaj ntawm av rau seedlings: qhov yooj yim cov cai rau kev npaj ntawm av sib tov, av disinfection, loj hlob seedlings nyob rau hauv ntaub hoob nab.

Uas yog lub teeb zoo dua los siv rau kev loj hlob seedlings: fluorescent lossis LED

Tom qab xav tias tag nrho cov hom luminaires rau illuminating seedlings, nyob rau hauv peb lub tswv yim, tsuas yog ob ntawm lawv muaj peev xwm raug hu ua: LED thiab fluorescent. Cov pa roj ntau hom (mercury, sodium thiab hlau hiam) tsis tuaj yeem muab cov khoom tsim nyog rau cov nroj tsuag. Piv txwv, nyob hauv mercury teeb pom kev zoo, lub teeb ntawm lub teeb yog ze li ob zaug dua nyob rau lwm tus, thiab sodium vim nws ci daj-daj txiv kab ntxwv zoo dua rau paj thiab kom pom kev cov qoob loo hauv cov caij nyoog qoob loo ntawm kev cog qoob.

Nws tseem ceeb heev! Sodium ntau yam ntawm cov roj teeb tuaj yeem tsis muab txuas tam rau hauv qhov hluav taws xob, lawv muaj kev sib txuas tshwj xeeb.

Raws li cov hlau-halide teeb pom cov ntsiab lus, qhov no yog qhov kev xaiv kim tshaj plaws, thiab nws yog zoo dua los siv nws nyob rau hauv thaum vegetative kev loj hlob yog preferable, es tsis txhob flowering. Pa roj carbon monoxide liab yuav tsum tsis txhob muab coj los xav, vim tsis muaj qhov sib txawv ntawm cov qauv ntawm xiav-liab spectrum, lawv tawm cov nplua nuj daj-liab, sai sai thiab tsis haum rau hauv lub dav hlau sab hauv.

Muab tag nrho cov saum toj no, nws tsuas yog cov zajlus kom xav txog ob qho kev xaiv rau seedling teeb: siv cov fluorescent thiab cov roj teeb. Cov thawj coj yog qhov txawv ntawm lub luminescence spectrum (thiab qhov muaj cai xaiv thiab kev txuas), thiab cov thib ob yog cov qis zog uas tsis muaj peev xwm thiab xaiv lub meej variant ntawm lub teeb pom kev zoo rau txhua theem ntawm seedling kev loj hlob: thawj, xim xiav xim yuav tsum yog thawj, thiab liab-txiv kab ntxwv ib tug yuav tsum complementary. Nws ntseeg tias LEDs muaj ntau tus yam ntxwv zoo nyob rau hauv kev sib piv nrog luminescent teeb pom cov ntsiab lus, tab sis ib tug yuav tsum tsis txhob hnov ​​qab txog qhov tseem ceeb ntawm qhov chaw nyob. Yog hais tias lub teeb ci teeb ci LED yuav ncaj qha mus rau hauv lub thawv, thiab lub teeb hluav taws xob txuag fluorescent teeb yog tsau siab, ces nws yog tseeb tias lub teeb ntawm nws yuav diffused, thiab tsis ncav cov nroj tsuag. Txawm li cas los xij, LED teeb pom kev yog suav tias yog nrov hnub no, nws thiaj li tsim nyog tshawb xyuas lawv ntau dua.

Peb qhia koj mus nyeem txog kev ua koj tus kheej ntoo khib nyiab loj hlob.

Yuav ua li cas xaiv ib lub teeb teeb rau cov nroj tsuag

Tsis zoo li ntau lwm yam luminaires, cov pab pawg neeg LED muaj ntau yam kev tsim variations, uas tuaj yeem yuav ua los ntawm ib tus neeg muaj nuj nqi nta.

Teeb hom

Nyob rau hauv tsos, LED tsim emit yaj (tsuas yog puag ncig thiab square), dog dig qhov muag teeb (screwed rau hauv paus) thiab LED strips uas tau muab txuas nrog nyob qhov twg. Nrov cov ntaub ntawv muaj xws li "pob kws", "flask" thiab LED tube (tshwj xeeb tshaj yog T8 lossis G13).

LED zoo lawm leeg - ib qho tshuaj zoo yog tias koj xav kom hloov me ntsis lub teeb ntawm lub qhov cub ntawm lub teeb, vim hais tias cov ntsiab lus tshiab sib haum rau lawv qhov loj thiab qhov chaw ntawm cov neeg siv (cov LEDs raug muab tso rau ntawm lub rooj tsavxwm raws qhov ntev ntawm lub teeb). Tub Tub Teeb Tsa flasks - feem ntau hom teeb roj uas pom muaj nrog SMD thiab COB LEDs. Feem ntau nws yog matte flask, uas guarantees zoo dispersion ntawm lub teeb fluxes. Tsis tas li ntawd yog ib qho kev xaiv kom zoo nkauj yuav muaj ntau yam nrog cov ntsiab lus filaments, uas zoo ib yam li cov qauv hluav taws xob cov roj teeb, tsuas ntev LEDs coj qhov chaw ntawm cov leeg. Rab Teeb Liab tau txais nws lub npe los ntawm lub cylindrical duab thiab saum npoo, them nrog SMD-LEDs. Txoj kev tsim ntawm lub caij pom kev tso cai tso cai rau kev faib cov teeb ntawm lub teeb thiab lub hwj chim ntawm lub teeb ntawm nws tus kheej. Teeb "pob kws" Thaum xaiv ib lub teeb pom kev zoo ntawm LED, nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb rau kev suav rau hauv paus ntawm lub hauv paus (ntawm chav kawm, yog tias peb tsis tham txog daim kab xev).

Lawv tau muab faib rau cov hom nram qab no:

  1. Txheem (denoted los ntawm tsab ntawv "E" thiab qhia txog hom kab ntsia hlau). Cov zauv ntawm ib sab ntawm tsab ntawv - qhov taub ntawm lub hau, uas yav tas los yuav raug siv rau kev sib txuas lus qij qhov muag qij. Hauv tsev, E27 los yog E14 bases tshaj plaws, thiab cov kab loj loj nyob ntawm txoj kev (E40).
  2. Разъём GU10 представлен двумя штырьками с небольшими утолщениями на концах (G - штырьковый, U - утолщение концов, 10 - пространство между штырьками). Общая конструкция напоминает строение стартера, использующегося в старых газоразрядных световых источниках. Cov teeb txawb nrog hom hauv qab daus no yog taw los ntawm ib lub tsheb ntais thiab yog siv raws li lub qab nthab nrog ib tug reflector.
  3. Rau cov kev hloov ntawm halogen Cheebtsam, G4, G9, GU5.3, GU10, GX 53 yog siv raws li nyob rau hauv dhau los versions, tus naj npawb yog lub npe ntawm qhov kev ncua deb ntawm lub Cheeb Tsom Peem.
  4. Ua ib daim tuaj hloov rau cov vojvoog uas muaj kab quas ntus nyob rau hauv qhov muag, ib lub R7s base LED tuaj yeem siv tau, thiab los hloov cov ncauj lus compact fluorescent, lub hauv paus yuav tsum raug cim ua G23.
  5. G13 thiab G5 lub khawm yuav hloov fluorescent counterparts nrog lub cev T8 thiab T5.

Nws tseem ceeb heev! Thaum npaj qhov chaw rau cov yub, GX 53 pib yuav tsim nyog, vim cov teeb txawb nrog xws li ib qho khoom siv zoo heev rau kev them nqi tshaj thiab teeb ua hauv txee rau ntawm rooj tog los yog lub qab nthab.

Cov LEDs

Niaj hnub nimno LED strips rau cov nroj tsuag tau muaj xim txawv (xim liab xiav). Nov yog 10: 3, thiab 15: 5, thiab 5: 1. Qhov zoo tshaj plaws nyob rau hauv feem ntau yog suav tias yog qhov kawg, uas muaj 1 xiav rau 5 liab qij liab. Tseeb, xws li ib qho kev daws tau hu ua optimal tsuas yog tias cov ntoo seedlings nyob rau hauv windowsill thiab txais ntxiv teeb pom kev los ntawm txoj kev. Raws li tag nrho cov LEDs, qhov no tus nqi yuav yog nyob ntawm thaj chaw ntawm koj cov nroj tsuag hauv lauj kaub thiab tsom iav. Rau 1 square. m feem ntau txaus 30-50 W ntawm LED fais fab, uas yog, 30-50 daim ntawm LEDs ntawm 1 W txhua. Txawm li cas los xij, cov txiaj ntsig no yuav siv tau thaum nws tuaj txog qhov teeb pom kev zoo ntxiv ntawm seedlings ntawm lub qhov rais sill, txwv tsis pub lub xov tooj ntawm cov duab yuav tsum tau nce.

Xav paub ntau ntxiv txog kev xaiv lub thawv lub thawv thiab cov txiaj ntsim ntawm kev siv cassettes, peat tablets thiab pawm.

Lub zog

Lub ci ci ntawm cov hluav taws xob ncaj qha yog nyob ntawm lub zog ntawm cov hluav taws xob cov teeb. Yog li, teeb pom kev ntawm 2-3 W yuav muab tau ib qho luminous flux ntawm 250 lm, 4-5 W - 400 lm, thiab 8-10 W - 700 lm. Txawm li cas los xij, cov kev ntsuas no tsis txaus rau feem ntau cov qoob loo cog qoob loo, yog li peb pom zoo rau kev siv zog ntawm 25-30 W, uas tso cai rau koj kom tau 2500 lm. Yog tias tsim nyog, koj tuaj yeem nruab ob peb lub teeb taws.

Glow spectrum

Xav txog kev tshwm sim ntawm ntau hom kev sib ntsib rau kab lis kev cai:

  • Liab (720-600 nm ntev) thiab txiv kab ntxwv rays (620-595 nm) yog qhov tseem ceeb ntawm cov hluav taws xob zoo rau photosynthesis, thiab nws yog rau lawv tias tus nqi ntawm kev hloov ntawm txhua tus txheej txheem nyob rau hauv tus txheej txheem nyob ntawm. Ib qho ntev li ntawm cov hluav taws xob qeeb yuav qeeb ntawm kev hloov ntawm cov nroj tsuag mus rau lub caij flowering;
  • xiav thiab violet rays (490-380 nm) yog lub luag hauj lwm rau cov khoom noj qhuav hauv cov kabmob hauv kab lis kev cai thiab ua kom cov paj tawg;
  • ultraviolet rays (315-380 nm) txo cov nqi ntawm "yuam" cov nroj tsuag thiab pab txhawb kev loj hlob ntawm cov tshuaj vitamins, thaum zoo tib yam rays nrog lub wavelength ntawm 280-315 nm nce lawv cov qoob loo tiv thaiv;
  • daj (595-565 nm) thiab ntsuab (565-490 nm) hluav taws xob tsis muaj kev cuam tshuam rau kev ua si tseem ceeb ntawm cov nroj tsuag thiab tsis muaj kev pab cuam ntau.
Kev pom zoo ntawm tag nrho cov nta no yog tsim nyog rau txoj kev xaiv teeb pom kev zoo. Glow conventional LED ntsiab li ze tau kom ntuj teeb pom kev zoo thiab ua tau raws li tag nrho cov kev xav tau ntawm seedlings, tab sis, yog hais tias koj xav kom koj mus yuav tau lub npe hu ua "multispectrum" teeb. Raws li tuam ntxhab, cov haum no tsim rau cov kev loj hlob thiab kev loj hlob ntawm seedlings thiab txhawb nqa lawv zoo tshaj qhov pom lub teeb pom kev zoo.

Nws puas ntxim rau nyiaj them tshaj thaum muas xws li ib lub teeb - nws tsis yooj yim to taub, vim tias txawm nrog LEDs zoo tib yam, cov yub loj hlob zoo. Qhov tsuas yog qhov koj yuav tsum tsis txhob hnov ​​qab yog lub xub ntiag ntawm cov xim xiav thiab liab xim, nrog rau kev pom kev zoo ntawm cov teeb pom kev zoo.

Nws tseem ceeb heev! Ntau lub teeb ua rau ib nrab kev puas tsuaj ntawm chlorophyll, thiab, vim li ntawd, yellowing ntawm leaflets. Yog hais tias koj tsis pritenit seedlings tej zaum yuav ua rau Burns.

Kev tiv thaiv

Txhua yam uas twb muaj tshwm sim ntawm cov teeb pom kev zoo ntawm LED yog tsim rau ntau lub hom phiaj, yog li ntawd nws tsis yog xav tsis thoob tias txhua tus ntawm lawv muaj peev xwm tau nws tus kheej kev tiv thaiv ntawm lub plhaub. Nws yog qhov kev pov hwm ntawm kev tiv thaiv uas ua rau nws txiav txim siab seb lub teeb muaj peev xwm ntsia tau sab nraum zoov, hauv tsev ntxhua khaub ncaws los yog hauv chav dej, los yog hauv pas dej.

Feem ntau qhov ntsuas no cim los ntawm lub khw muag khoom ntawm lub pob nrog LED thiab muaj ob tug lej: thawj ib qho qhia txog kev tiv thaiv plua plav thiab cov khoom kho kev puas tsuaj, thiab qhov thib ob qhia tias kev tiv thaiv tsis pub muaj kev ya raws. Ntau qhov tseeb qhov tseem ceeb rau cov teeb roj teeb hauv lub rooj yog:

Nqe ntau thiab chaw tsim khoom

Cov hauj lwm zoo ntawm cov roj teeb thiab cov hauj lwm ntev ntawm lawv txoj hauj lwm yog nyob ntawm qhov chaw tsim nyog txoj kev ntseeg, yog li ntawd, thaum xaiv ib lub teeb pom kev zoo, nws tseem ceeb txaus siab rau qhov ntsuas no. Ib qho ntawm cov tuam txhab feem xyuam kev txhim khu kev qha thiab lub sij hawm zoo tshaj plaws yog Optogan, Optocouplers, Artleds los ntawm Russia, thiab Agilent Technologies, lub chaw lag luam uas muaj npe nrov tshaj plaws uas tau ua cov teeb txheeb xyoo tas los.

Optek Technology, Edison, Philips Lumileds, Toshiba, uas muaj teeb pom kev ntawm ntau hom kev kho rau tus neeg siv khoom noj haus, raug xam tias yog cov khoom lag luam sib npaug ntawm cov khoom siv LED.

Raws li kev ntaus nqi, nws tag nrho yog nyob ntawm hom khoom (teeb, teeb lossis ribbon) thiab nws cov zog cov yam ntxwv: koj tuaj yeem siv li ob peb duas las, thiab ntau lub sijhawm.

Qhov tsis muaj teeb pom kev zoo muaj cov nyhuv tsis zoo rau sab hauv paj: lawv cov duab puab thiab kev loj hlob pauv, cov khoom cog muaj deformed. Nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv no, koj yuav tsum tau saib xyuas ntxiv ntawm teeb pom kev zoo.

Teeb rau seedlings: qhov muab xam ntawm pes tsawg tus yaj

Xaiv ib lub teeb zoo LED tsis lav tias yam kev xav tau, raws li ib lub teeb tsis tuaj yeem tiv nrog ntau cov nroj tsuag. Yog hais tias koj muaj ntau lub thawv, nws yog qhov zoo dua rau kev suav ua ntej yuav tsum muaj pes tsawg tus teeb pom kev, coj mus rau hauv koj tus account nram qab no:

  • hom qoob loo zus thiab nws xav tau lub teeb (feem ntau yog tus nqi ntawm 6000 tus nplua nuj txaus);
  • lub kaum sab xis ntawm lub teeb ntawm lub teeb (tso cai rau ob qho tib si kab rov tav thiab ntsug);
  • deb ntawm lub teeb mus rau sab saum toj ntawm sapling;
  • qhov chaw koj xav pom teeb.

Peb muab ib qho piv txwv ntawm kev txheeb tseeb ntawm txiv lws suav. Rau high-zoo teeb pom kev zoo ntawm seedlings uas nyob rau hauv ib lub lauj kaub ntawm 0,6 square metres. m yuav xav tau 5000 tus nplua nuj, yog li ntawm qhov muaj nqis ntawm qhov chaw cog qoob loo (0,6 sq. m.) thiab peb tau 3000 lm - qhov nqi ntawm qhov pom kev zoo ntawm cov luminous flux rau ib rooj plaub. Lub teeb nws tus kheej tau muab tso rau hauv horizontally, ntawm ib tug deb ntawm 15-20 cm los ntawm cog saum npoo.

Nws tseem ceeb heev! Ib feem pua ​​ntawm cov nplaim hluav taws xob tuaj yeem nqus tau los ntawm cov phab ntsa thiab cov khoom uas tau muab tso rau hauv chav tsev, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog yog tias lub teeb ci nyob deb ntawm cov nroj tsuag. Yuav kom them nyiaj rau cov kev poob no, nws yog ntshaw mus yuav ib lub teeb 10-30% ntau dua.

Yuav ua li cas kho lub teeb: qhov deb ntawm teeb mus rau seedlings

Niaj hnub nimno teebmeem tau muag nrog npaj mounts, thiab koj tsuas yog khawm lawv nrog screws mus rau kev them nyiaj yug. Yog tias ua tau, yuav tsum tau muab rau cov hom uas tom qab ntawd tso cai rau qhov siab ntawm lub teeb kom raug kho vim yog cov saw hlau, vim hais tias nrog kev loj hlob ntawm seedlings nws tej zaum yuav tsum tau hloov lub chaw ntawm lub teeb pom kev.

Qhov nruab nrab, tsawg kawg 25 cm ntawm qhov chaw pub dawb yuav tsum tau ceev cia los ntawm LED teeb phom rau cov nroj tsuag. Thaum doshedivanii plantings fluorescent yaj nrog ib lub peev xwm ntawm 300-400 watts ib 1 square. m, tau teeb pom kev zoo yuav muab rau thaum lub teeb muaj nyob ntawm qhov ntev ntawm 20-30 cm. Yog hais tias lub seedlings yog nyob deb ntawm lub qhov rais thiab ntuj lub teeb tsis tau mus rau nws nyob rau hauv tag nrho cov, ces nws yog tsis ib tug xav mus rau lub teeb, tab sis tag nrho cov kev pabcuam. Nyob rau hauv qhov teeb meem no, lub teeb yuav tsum dai ntawm qhov siab ntawm 60-70 cm, tiam sis lub caij nyoog ntawm "illumination" yuav nyob ntawm seb lub teeb pom kev zoo. Lub voj voog ntawm "illumination" hauv qhov piv ntawm cov kab thiab lub qhov siab ntawm qhov raug tshem tawm raug zoo li qhov no:

Qhov siabQhov lub cheeb ntawm lub voj voog loopampola 15 WQhov lub cheeb ntawm lub voj voos looolination fitolampa 36 W
50 cm20 cm40 cm
70 cm30 cm50 cm
100 cm40 cm70 cm
120 cm45 cm80 cm
150 cm50 cm90 cm
200 cm60 cm100 cm

Nyeem kuj hais txog kev siv ntawm cov teeb pom kev zoo rau cov nroj tsuag hauv tsev.

Cov cai rau kev taws teeb: li cas tsis ua mob rau cov nroj tsuag

Ib lub overabundance ntawm lub teeb kuj yog undesirable rau seedlings, thiab nws tsis muaj, yog li ntawd, thaum teeb pom li koj seedlings nws yog nqi adhering rau qee cov cai:

  1. Nws yog qhov tsim nyog los cog lub noob nyob rau hauv lub peb hlis ntuj los yog lub Plaub Hlis, thaum muaj txaus hnub ci (tsis muaj teeb tau hloov tag nrho lub hnub).
  2. Muaj lub hnub ci li 12 xuab moos (lub teeb uas niaj hnub hits lub noob qoob loo), cov teeb txawb tsis tuaj yeem ntsia tsis tau, thiab ua kom muaj lub teeb pom kev zoo, txhim kho cov ntxiab ci (piv txwv, ntawv ci, daim iav los yog ib daim ntawv dawb) ntawm lub npov.
  3. Yog hais tias qhov teeb pom kev tseem ua tiav lawm, nws yog ib qho tsim nyog yuav tau ua hauv cov nyiaj hloov ntawm photoperiods: hnub thiab hmo ntuj. Nroj tsuag yuav tsum tau siv rau tsoom fwv, vim hais tias ua si nrog lub teeb yuav muaj kev phem rau lawv txoj kev loj hlob.
  4. Txhua hom cog nroj tsuag yuav tsum muaj nws tus kheej ntxiv teeb pom kev zoo thiab ntev sijhawm: piv txwv li, yuav luag txhua yam zaub yuav tsum tau muaj pes tsawg ntawm natural daylight, thiab ib co paj xav penumbra.
  5. Tshwj xeeb tshaj plaws yuav tsum teeb rau hnub zom ntub los yog thaum tso cov thawv nyob rau sab qaum teb ntawm ib lub tsev lossis ib lub tsev.

Ua raws li cov kev cai yooj yim thiab saib xyuas cov kev cai rau kev xaiv thiab kev tso kawm ntawm qhov chaw ntawm lub teeb pom kev zoo, txawm tias ib tug neeg tuaj yeem gardener yuav muaj peev xwm loj hlob zoo thiab muaj peev xwm, uas, thaum transplanted mus rau ib lub txaj, yuav sai sai hloov mus rau tshiab mob. Loj hlob seedlings yog ib qho yooj yim ua hauj lwm, thiab nrog lub teeb roj teeb txhua yam yuav yooj yim txawm.

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